For this data set the previous europe_adm1 data sets (1815 to 1866) data sets were adopted and adapted. The data sets are mostly based on maps of
Europe by Adrien Hubert Brue, 1816 (Rumsey Collection)
the Netherlands and Luxembourg by Carl Ferdinand Weiland, 1817 (Rumsey Collection)
the Austrian Monarchy by Anton Floder, 1835 (Woldan Collection)
Greece by Heinrich Kiepert, 1853 (Rumsey Collection)
Lake Constanz by the Landesamt für Vermessung und Geoinformation Bayern, 2010 (Bodensee Geodatenpool)
Republic of Cracow by Eduś - IBR Biblioteki Śląskiej w Katowicach, 2015
the Balkan by Stieler, 1892 (Rumsey Collection)
the Caucasus by Andree, 1900 (Rumsey collection)
Montenegro by Ivan Vukicevic, 2016
In order to improve geometry accuracy also other available vector data sets were used and adapted viz.: data provided by
the Mosaic Project ( http://www.censusmosaic.org/)
the Geo-Larhra Catalogue (http://geo-larhra.org/?q=geocatalogue/vectors)
the © OpenStreetMap collaborative project (www.openstreetmap.org).
Antonia Dückelmann was responsible for reviewing the existing, provided data sets, for data consolidation and harmonization, and for data editing based on research by Peter Paul Marckhgott-Sanabria. Peter Paul Marckhgott-Sanabria was responsible for historical investigation and validation, in particular for reviewing the created data sets, for data harmonization and for research on administrative structures in the time period and on the dates of existence of the respective administrative units (time spans between formation and disintegration).
Antonia Dückelmann / Peter Paul Marckhgott-Sanabria, "Europe State Borders 1878", based on Rumsey: Brue, Europe 1816; Woldan: Floder, Oesterreich, 1835; Rumsey: Weiland, Niederlande nebst Luxemburg, 1817; Rumsey: Kiepert, Hellas oder Griechenland, 1853; Rumsey: Stieler, Balkan-Halbinsel, 1892; Rumsey: Andree, The Caucasus, 1900; Bodensee Geodatenpool: Landesamt für Vermessung und Geoinformation Bayern, Bodensee Karte 3 - Staatsgebiete, 2010; Eduś - IBR Biblioteki Śląskiej w Katowicach, Jaworzno, 2015; Vukicevic: Montenegro, 2016; Geo-Larhra: Territoires de l'Italie, 1859 and 1866; Census Mosaic: German Empire Statistical Units, 1871; Census Mosaic: Europe Main, 1900; Census Mosaic: Austria-Hungary, 1910; Census Mosaic: Bordering Continents, 1900; Census Mosaic: Serbia, 1884 and © OpenStreetMap contributors; published by Histogis